pianist Andor Foldes - Image taken from the cover of a Deutsche Grammophon
Marta Eggerth (b. 1912) and Jan Kiepura (1902-1966) at the time when
they triumphed in New York - Picture taken from the EMI Odeon LP OPXH
Kreisler - image taken from the cover of the recording of Liebeslieder
am Ultimo - Intercord 160.120.
Doktor Marcel F. Prawy at 31 in 1943.
conductor Fritz Busch in 1942, New York.
famous recordings of Béla Bartók playing his own work
at the piano, New York, 1942.
Wolf conducts Symphony in D by Cesar Franck.
few recordings produced by Marcel Prawy appeared on the Viennola label.
29, 1897 November 29, 1957
13 March 1890 -
14 September 1951
Sonatas Op. 109 and 110 by Jörg Demus on RLP-199-29.
of Marcel Prawy's Certificate of Nationalization and ID photograph,
and the letter of recommendation written by Don Gabor, courtesy of researcher
Franz Krahberger from Austria.
1937, twenty six year old Marcel Prawy became personal secretary to
Polish singer/actor Jan Kiepura and Hungarian operetta singer Martha
Eggerth (also Marta Eggert, Martha Eggerth, originally Márta
In this function Prawy could combine his knowledge and organizational
talent with his love for music and drama. The engagement was the beginning
of a remarkable career.
Prawy - in full Marcel Horace Frydman, Ritter von Prawy -
was born on December 29, 1911, in Vienna. The title Ritter
means Knight. And Freiherr (the title which is also
often mentioned) is the equivalent of baron. He was
born into a Jewish Austro-Hungarian noble family which originated
an early age on music, and especially opera, was Marcel's passion.
However, after passing his gymnasium exam, he did not study music
and musicology full time at the "Viennese State Academy for Music
and Dramatic Art" (Wiener Staatsakademie für Musik und dramatische
Kunst). No, he attended the university of Vienna instead to study
law. He became a Juris Doctor (Doctor of Law) in 1934 and practiced
in a law firm. Yet music was all the time on his mind. As a side line
Prawy studied music with famous musicologist and composer Egon Wellesz,
who himself had studied with Guido Adler and Arnold Schönberg.
In 1938 Wellesz left for Great Britain to take up a post at the University
of Oxford. Now Marcel Prawy had to decide what he was going to do
the label of the 78 RPM shellac disc with Kiepura singing "Oh
Madonna!" accompanied by the Parlophon-Künstler-Orchester
conducted by Dr. Weissmann. The reference of the disc is 11
007. That was in 1934, well before Marcel Prawy became personal
1938 Jan Kiepura made his debut at the Met in New York. Marcel
Prawy, now personal secretary to the famous couple, planned to join
him, but he did not have the appropriate documents for leaving Austria.
The political situation in Austria was getting grimmer and grimmer
and those who planned to leave the country should not hesitate.
As a young man, conductor
Johnson studied in Europe. During the 1936-1937 season he
stayed in Salzburg, Vienna, and in Leipzig. In a letter to his parents
Johnson described the prewar situation in Austria:
"Austria is one of the poorest countries of Europe.
The streets are filled with cripples and beggars and Vienna
is considerably run down. The war (WW I, ed.) certainly took
its toll. The only man who seems to have had any ability to
do anything for Austria was Dollfuss and the Nazis took his
life because they realized his importance." - Thor Johnson
in Thor Johnson, American Conductor, by Louis Nicholas, 1982.
was condemned to pay damages after World War One had ended. That was
disastrous for the country. The bad economic sitiation gave the Nazis
a growing influence. In an attempt to counteract this, Engelbert Dollfuss
had instated his dictatorship and banned the Austrian Nazi party.
He also excluded the social democrats. They could not take part in
the government. However, Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss was assassinated
on July 24, 1934. He was succeeded by Kurt von Schussnig who followed
the same policy, but to no avail. That is how things stood in the
second half of the 1930s.
Kiepura was a very popular artist who starred in several movies. He
was not too fluent in English and he had a heavy Polish accent when
speaking German. So the dialogues in movies had to be dubbed with
the voice of another actor. After Prawy had become Kiepura's secretary
he supervised the synchronisation sessions together with actor
Robert Valberg in Vienna.
As Jan Kiepura was engaged at the Metropolitan Opera, migration
to the US was the obvious move for Prawy to make. This became the
more urgent when on March 12, 1938, Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany.
The new Nazi government meant important changes and restrictions for
all Austrian citizens. Also for performing artists. On the day after
the Anschluss it was announced that actor Robert Valberg,
with whom Prawy had worked while synchronizing and editing Kiepura's
latest movie, was appointed head of all the artists in the new constellation
(Landesleiter der Reichstheaterkammer and Kulturbeirat der
Stadt Wien). This came as a shock. Prawy had never suspected that
the man, with whom he was on friendly terms, was a Nazi. However,
it was Robert Valberg, who arranged for the necessary official documents
and Prawy could quickly leave the country. Together with Jan Kiepura
and Marta Eggerth, he left for Italy. From there they traveled
by boat to the United States. Prawy was registered at Ellis Island
enough Jan Kiepura and Marcel Prawy returned to Germany for a short
while later in 1939 in order to collect important private belongings
and documents in Berlin, an undertaking which was not without risk.
When they realized this, they decided not to continue their trip to
Berlin and left the country and Europe as soon as possible. They reached
New York later in 1939. Marcel Prawy got a permit to stay and he also
obtained an affidavit for his father, who came to America as well,
but died there. Dr. Richard Frydmann von Prawy, 1882-1942.
1933 dark clouds gathered over Europe. In the years before World War
II broke out, many scientists, musicians, composers, performers, and
artists fled to America. Many were well known or became famous after
the war. They were of various nationalities.
Many names were linked in some way or other to the Austrian-Hungarian-German
music culture: Robert Stolz (conductor), Oscar Strauss
(composer/conductor), Paul Abraham (composer), Emmerich
Kalman (composer), Erich Wolfgang Korngold (composer/conductor),
Béla Bartók (composer), Andor Foldes (pianist),
Fritz Busch (conductor), and many, many more. Marcel Prawy
got to know them personally and remained friends with Stolz, Korngold,
Kálmán, Strauss, and many more.
all were in a position to perform or have their works performed to
earn some sort of living. There were exceptions: Robert Stolz
conducted in New York. Fritz Busch led the New Opera Company,
Hungarian born singer Martha Eggert and her Polish husband
Jan Kiepura sang at the Met, and Marta Eggerth made movies
in Hollywood. In 1940 she sang in the Broadway musical 'Higher and
Higher'. In the 1943-1944 season the couple played in the Broadway
production of the operetta 'The Merry Widow' (Lehar). Many immigrants
produced cultural gatherings for other immigrants in New York, and
with success. Donald Gabor knew Martha Eggert and he asked her to
make a few recordings for his Continental label which he later released
on Continental CLP 2012. Gabor also recorded pianist Andor
Foldes and, together with Laszlo Halasz, he made the now famous
recordings of Béla Bartók. It was through Marta
Eggert that Donald Gabor met Marcel Prawy, a meeting which would have
great consequencies several years later.
United States of America Certificate of Nationalization of Marcel
Prawy (white, male, ruddy complexion, 5 foot 11.5 inches tall)
was issued on November 2, 1943 in Maryland.
George Curtiss (later director of the Webster pressing plant in Massachusetts),
also Marcel Prawy enlisted in the US Army in 1943 and obtained US
citizenship. From then on Prawy was no longer secretary of the famous
movie couple, but became instructor. He taught languages, history,
and customs of European countries to recruits so they would be prepared
when they came to Europe.
1944 Prawy was first sent to England were he entertained the American
troops together with cabarettist/pianist/composer Georg Kreisler
(a sample of the latter's art are the "Nichtarische Arien"
-Not Arian Arias- recorded in 1966). From England Prawy went to Paris.
There too Prawy and Kreisler performed their musical reviews they
partly had written together.
the Germans had finally capitulated in May 1945, Prawy was stationed
in Germany and for a short while in Bordeaux in France. In 1946 he
returned to Vienna. From May 1946 till 1950 he was a "military
civilian" and as such became editor of "Welt im Film"
(The World in Pictures), the adaptation of the American-British
news reel, to which he added more items about music than about
politics, he later confessed in his book "Marcel Prawy erzählt
aus seinem Leben" (Marcel Prawy talks about his life).
Prawy in the nineteen seventies when he prepared a special
Series of LPs for Deutsche Grammophon containing Opera Highlights
taken from recordings of complete operas from the DGG catalog.
taken from Deutsche Grammophon Lp 2532 001 - Wagner: Tristan
Photo credit: Will Appelt, Wien.
Prawy produced many recordings on his own account like 'RÍve
de valse' (Ein Walzertraum, Dreamwaltz) by Oscar Srauss, released
in France on Counterpoint CMC 120.001, the composer conducting
the 'Tonkünstlerorchester', listed in 1955. The actual
conductor in this recording is not Oscar Strauss who was already
very old, yet very satisfied with the way
Schönherr conducted the music.
conversations between Donald Gabor and Marcel Prawy in New York resonated
at the end of the nineteen forties when Gabor contacted Prawy and
asked him to produce recordings to be released on his newly founded
Remington Records label. They made a deal.
From 1950 on Prawy produced numerous recordings with the Orchestra
of the Viennese Symphonic Society which is also called Austrian Symphony
Orchestra, Niederösterreichisches Sinfonieorchester (Symphony
Orchestra of Lower Austria), and Tonkünstler Orchester.
Prawy mentioned in his correspondence the recordings made with Gaspar
Cassado, Kurt Wöss and George Singer, he calls the orchestra
"Vienna Pro Arte Orchestra". He had a two year contract
with the orchestra. Conductors were Fritz Busch, Kurt Wöss,
Wilhelm Loibner, Gustav Koslik, Felix Prohaska, Paul Walter, George
Singer, Anton Paulik, Max Schönherr, and
Wolf, to name a few. And he had a contract with the Orchestra
of the Salzburg Mozarteum.
his productions, Prawy wrote in a letter dated July 31, 1950:
After three years of military duty with the U.S.Army (1943-1946)
and three years civilian duty with Military Government for Austria
(1946-1949, Assistant Films Officer for Austria) I am now executive
employee with Continental Record Company Inc.(...)
My weekly earnings since my separation from Military Government
have averaged ATS 100.-. They are bound to take a sharp increase
as I am working on salary plus commission and have produced
in the last months approximately 80 records which will go on
sale in August only with 10% for me in addition to my salary.
first batch of recordings was released in the fall of 1950, and certainly
not all eighty productions. Prawy also made deals with performing
artists and artists of the younger generation, those who just had
finished their studies in Vienna.
Prawy even asked conductor Paul Sacher to make recordings for
the Remington label and, in a letter, tried to convince him by mentioning
that recordings had been made with George Enesco; Bela Bartok interpreting
his own compositions; Giuseppe de Luca singing arias; Walter Schneiderhan
playing Mendelssohn`s Violin Concerto and Beethoven Senatas; Giovanni
Martinelli and Karin Branzell singing arias and songs; Andor Foldes
with a special piano album; Robert Stolz conducting his own works;
Jan Kiepura in The Merry Widow (Lustige Witwe); Oscar Strauss conducting
Viennese music; and a series of "great symphonies conducted by
"the excellent conductor"
Arthur Brown had been completed. Prawy talked as if he was
involved with the Bartok, Enesco and Foldes recordings which were
made by Don Gabor in America. However, he could have been present
when Bartok and Foldes made the recordings. It is known that Prawy
was an able negotiator and also someone who liked to give importance
to himself as well as the cause he was working for. In this case Continental
Prawy discovered and contracted pianist Jörg Demus for
his first recordings ever, with works of Bach, Beethoven, Chopin and
Schubert. Prawy also approached young pianist Alexander Jenner
who, in 1949, had won the "Bösendorfer-Preisflügel" (Bösendorfer
Grand Piano Prize), which was awarded by the famous Viennese piano
manufacturer to the best student. It was the obvious recommendation
to have Alexander Jenner to make his debut recordings for Remington.
Alexander Jenner told me: "Mr. Prawy would ask you to study,
say Beethoven's 'Diabelli Variations', and to be ready in two weeks
time for a recording session."
sessions arranged by Prawy in Vienna produced material to be released
on the Remington label for which also pianists Frieda Valenzi,
Fritz Weidlich, and Felicitas
Karrer performed. These recordings were often released on Gabor's
Plymouth and Merit labels as well. Prawy recorded cellists Gaspar
Cassado and Richard Matuschka, and violinists Michèle
Auclair, Eva Hitzker, Helen Airoff, Walter Schneiderhan, and
Gérard Poulet. He made recordings or obtained radio recordings
of the many artists who can be found on the Remington releases starting
at R-199-1 with pianist Felicitas Karrer performing Beethoven's Emperor
Concerto, up to and about R-199-128 on which Michèle Auclair
plays 'Kreisler Favorites' and Gaspar Cassado plays 'Cello Encores.
And there is R-199-130, the record of Gustav Koslik conducting the
Austrian Symphony Orchestra in 'Polovetsian Dances' from Prince Igor
(Borodin) and 'Night on Bald Mountain' (Mussorgsky).
first "Fritz Busch Album", a gatefold with the recordings
of Beethoven's Symphony No. 8 and Joseph Haydn's "The Clock"
appeared in the luxurious series with crocodile skin pattern.
After Fritz Busch had died these recordings were available
as the "Fritz Busch Memorial Album" in a differently
styled cover. Both releases had the reference number MW 39.
Another release was with baritone Paul Schoeffler (who
sang at the Wiener Staatsoper fromn 1937 till 1965) and cellist
unique recording of Volkmar Andreae at 70 years of age:
Bruckner's Symphony No. 1. MW-40
Gui conducts Mendelssohn Bartholdy's 'Reformation Symphony'
and Hebrides Overture.MW-50
luxurious Masterseal editions
bear the emblem
"A Marcel Prawy Production".
issued VC 81040 with the tapes from which the original Masterseal
MW 46 was cut. It is likely that the recordings of the Masterseal
LP were produced for the Austrian Broadcasting Services by Marcel
Prawy together with Erich Wolfgang von Korngold himself. The
luxurious Masterseal bears the emblem "A Marcel Prawy Production".
Srauss Dynasty - Music by the various members of the Strauss
family conducted by Oscar Strauss who also lived in New York
during World War Two. Masterseal MW-48. But apparently not at
all conducted by Oscar Strauss but by Clemens Krauss, Max Schönherr,
Kurt Wöss, Robert Stolz, Felix Guenther.
few of Prawy's productions were released on the Masterseal
label in the early years. These were special editions not styled by
Alex Steinweiss or another artist who would be in charge. The records
were offered in luxurious gatefold covers with a luxurious snake skin
pattern and liner notes originally written by Marcel Prawy
himself. The most famous ones are the Busch Memorial Album, the recording
with cellist Gaspar Cassado playing gems and accompanying baritone
Paul Schoeffler (Masterseal MW-45). On Masterseal MW-49 it
is Vittorio Gui who conducts Mendelssohn Bartholdy's 'Reformation
Symphony' and Hebrides Overture, and on Masterseal MW-50 he conducts
Great Overtures of Rossini, Cherubini and Wolf-Ferrari. The pressings
were done on quality vinyl, not the cheap substitute used for the
Remingtons. Therefor prices were high, $6.45 for a 12 inch LP record.
Other Masterseal releases were Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 with conductor
Volkmar Andreae (Masterseal MW-40); "Erich Wolfgang
Korngold plays Korngold", an LP on which the composer plays
the piano, and soprano Hilde Zadek and tenor Anton Dermota
sing, while Wilhelm Loibner conducts the "Austrian State
Symphony" (Masterseal MW-46). On MW-42 Vittorio Gui conducts
"Great German Overtures". And there are the recordings by
Oscar Strauss on MW-47 and 48, and of course the
Fritz Busch Memorial Album (MW-39).
All special recordings.
recordings were re-released on the Vibraton label in the nineteen
sixties and seventies. These records were pressed in Italy from
new matrices on a better quality vinyl.
special Masterseal series with noteworthy recordings produced
by Marcel Prawy all bore an emblem with his name instead of
the name of Donald H. Gabor.
collaboration between Marcel Prawy and Don Gabor lasted until the
beginning of 1953. It was then that Donald was offered to have Berlin
as the main recording venue and tape performances of the
RIAS Symphony Orchestra.
Marcel Prawy writes in his biography:
between 1950 and 1955, I made many recordings, mostly for the
American firm "Remington", of which Donald and Wally
Gabor from New York were the founders, who, for the first time,
wanted to release a budget series of the newly invented LP.
I made many records on my own account. There was a contract
with the 'Niederösterreichisches Tonkünstlerorchester'.
(...) On my records conducted the great conductors Fritz Busch
and Vittorio Gui. Anton Dermota, Paul Schoeffler, Astrid Varnay
the beginning several records were produced together with conductor
Hans Wolf who also had fled to America and had enlisted in the US
Army. After World War II Hans Wolf (1913-2005) had come back
to Europe, but returned to the US for good in 1950. Before he left,
he recorded six works for Remington, among others César
Franck's Symphony in D, Ludwig van Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, Symphony
No. 2 by Johannes Brahms, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's "Haffner"
Symphony, all with "The Austrian Symphony Orchestra".
And he recorded Haydn's Cello Concerto with Gaspar Cassado.
Hans Wolf is better known as a conductor of opera and of operetta.
truly was a budget series. The Remington recordings made in Austria
give evidence that Prawy was more concerned about recording an artist,
an orchestra, the composition, and adding another work to his and
Gabor's catalog, than he cared about the quality of the sound recording
per se. Prawy tried to sell his recordings also to radio stations
in Sweden and Germany (RIAS), and to other recording companies in
England and the USA (Capitol) but to no avail.
the collaboration with Remington Records had ended,
Donald Gabor wrote a Letter of
Recommendation on the stationary of his
Corporation of New England, Webster, Massachusetts:
is to certify that Mr. Marcel Prawy was employed as director and
producer of musical recordings by our division, Remington Records,
Inc. Mr. Prawy started for us on January 17, 1950 and was employed
until December 1953 and was paid on a weekly basis the sum of
$500. We were extremely satisfied with Mr. Prawy's unique talent
and loyalty and it is a pleasure to recommend him for any position
which he would undertake." - Signed: Donald H. Gabor,
conversion rate of the US$ to Austrian Schilling was 1 to 20 at the
time. The weekly payment of $500 was about 10.000 Austrian Schillings
in 1951, and even more on the black market. Prawy had to pay orchestras,
conductors, musicians, technicians, rent recording venues and pay
for additional production costs. Nevertheless one suspects that his
business with Gabor made him a well-to-do man.
1953 is mentioned as the end of the contract, for the recordings of
the Beethoven and Brahms Violin Concertos performed by American violinist
Spalding, Laszlo Halasz traveled to Vienna to supervise the
recordings which were made using the new Musirama 4-microphone placement.
It is plausible that recording director Laszlo Halasz traveled to
Vienna, together with violinist Albert Spalding, and supervised these
recordings, made in November 1952. Prawy may have been present.
Marcel Prawy had tried to sell his "musical recordings"
to radio stations and other interested parties, it seems that Remington
was the only record company who released his recordings (apart from
a few recordings issued in Germany (on the Opera label, Bertelsmann)
and in France (on Counterpoint).
early years of producing were significant for Prawy's later career
and his experiences paid off. In 1955 he became a member of the board
of directors of the 'Volksoper' and he dared to introduce 'the musical'
to the conservative Viennese public by staging Cole Porter's 'Kiss
me Kate', followed by Leonard Bernstein's 'Wonderful Town' (1956),
Irving Berlin's 'Annie, Get your Gun' (1957), and Leonard Bernstein's
'West Side Story' (1968), and many more.
Price and William Warfield. Picture
taken from the RCA LP release with highlights from Porgy and
1952 the American Opera Company toured Europe performing George Gershwin's
Porgy and Bess and also visited Vienna. Prawy had first seen
'Porgy and Bess', the revival production, in New York in 1942 and
he could have seen the 1944 production at the New York City Center
before he, as an information officer, was sent back to Europe with
the US Army. In that 1952 production the role of Porgy was played
and sung by William Warfield whom Prawy had met in the army.
Bess was the young and newly discovered star, soprano Leontyne
Price. It was the first Blevins Davis/ Robert Breen production.
(The second production of Porgy and Bess toured Europe one year later,
picture appeared in Etude Magazine of July, 1955. The caption
reads, "Maestro Ormandy and William Warfield, noted Negro
baritone, with several orchestra members about to board their
The Philadelphia Orchestra flew to Europe with KLM, Royal Dutch
Airlines, as is indicated by the lettering "The Flying Dutchman"
above the windows.
it is likely that William Warfield also came to Vienna in 1955 when
the Philadelphia Orchestra and conductor Eugene Ormandy toured Europe
and visited the Austrian capital. An article in Etude Magazine of
July, 1955, mentions: "William Warfield, baritone and the only
American soloist to accompany the orchestra, was the featured artist
in seven (...) programs."
years later, in 1965, Marcel Prawy himself produced 'Porgy and Bess'
with the Wiener Volksoper. It was the complete, original version and
the first complete version since the premiere in Boston. Therefor
it is said that Marcel Prawy set the trend to perform 'Porgy and Bess'
as a full length opera and not as an abbreviated musical, already
many years before the Metropolitain Opera did. In that production
of 1965 Olive Moorefield was Bess. Porgy was again Prawy's army friend
"I owe a deep insight into the creativity of George Gershwin
to a wonderful man with whom I became friends in New York. There
his name was Albert Sirmai (opriginally written as Szirmay,
ed.) (...) managing director of the famous Chappell Publishing
Company and who earlier had been a close collaborator of George
Gershwin. Nearly all Gershwin's piano scores show his name as
a publisher. Countless times I have visited him after office
hours at Chapell's and did not get tired to listen to his stories
about George Gershwin. Because of his inadequate classical music
studies, Gershwin suffered from poor selfesteem, and was a Wagnerian,
and Sirmai had always to explain the technique of the 'Leitmotiv'
(leading motif) of his idol. He (Sirmai. ed.) once showed
me a 'Meistersinger' opera vocal score with Gershwin's written
remarks. "Porgy" is indeed the only opera which
exists with the most 'leading motifs' ever.
The premiere performance in the year 1935 in the Alvin Theatre
was no good - except for the leading performers Todd Duncan
and Anne Brown. And when I came to America in 1939 people still
said to me (...) that Porgy, the last (composition) of Gershwin,
was nothing.(...) Than they remodeled "Porgy and Bess",
inserted spoken dialog (these are hardly present in the original),
the heavy chorusses were abridged, and changed it into a musical.
That was an immense triumph in 1942. (...) I was present. Suddenly
there was a musical which had less similarity with Gershwin's
opera, but had started a triumphant tour.
was the first who said to director Moser of the "Volksoper":
"What in fact about the original which was never performed?
As an opera house we have all the possibilities - Gershwin never
did have these. Why don't we do that for the first time in Vienna?"
Moser agreed. And in 1965 we did produce for the first time
the original score of "Porgy and Bess", as a large,
heavy opera with a large orchestra, big chorusses, with these
difficult things to sing, for the first time in the world on
October 19, 1965, at the Volksoper. (Olive) Moorefield was Bess,
William Warfield Porgy, and I was very proud of the headline
in an American newspaper: "Vienna gave Gershwin what America
did refuse him." - Marcel Prawy
career was gaining more and more in importance. He became a famous
television presenter and as such was called 'Mister Oper'. He supervised
and compiled a series of opera records for Deutsche Grammophon, engaged
famous stars and discovered new talents. He wrote many books and was
dramaturg at the State Opera (Staatsoper). He was one of Vienna's
most remarkable figures who left an imprint on the cultural life and
on the lives of many artists, opera singers, conductors, musicians,
stars, and in the early nineteen fifties on Gabor's Remington Records.
Prawy, who, like writer Cornell Woolridge (The Window and Rear Window)
and so many others, considered living in a hotel the best way to be
able to dedicate himself fully to his work - he may have taken up
the habit when changing from one hotel to another during his stay
in New York - passed away on February 23, 2003, at the age of 91,
leaving numerous documents, books, photographs and objets, all documenting
the musical history of Vienna over many decades.
In the nineteen thirties tenor Jan Kiepura predicted that Marcel
Prawy was going to have a great career. And indeed he was. Placido
Domingo described Prawy as "an authority for everything concerning
music". And that was also very true.
Text written by
Rudolf A. Bruil - Page first published in December 2006.
Some facts about Marcel Prawy's work for Jan Kiepura, his stay in
the USA and a quotation, were taken from the book "Marcel Prawy
erzählt aus seinem Leben" (Marcel Prawy talks about his
life), Kremayr & Scheriau, Vienna, 2001.